Posts Tagged 'Virtualization'

Cloud Computing: The New IT Paradigm

Much has been said about the new concept of Cloud Computing. There are a myriad of definitions and just as many companies claiming to have a Cloud Computing solution. What is really Cloud Computing, and which solutions will offer you what this new paradigm claims to deliver, are the questions most want to see answered. For starters, let me just state what is obvious for the most experienced who have seen this before, the new thing about Cloud Computing is, its name. During the rest of this entry I´ll walk you through the evolution of a few concepts that lead us to today’s so called Cloud Computing paradigm. Without further ado, let’s dive right into it.

The Industrialization of IT

Information technology has always been about turning computerized systems into a way of getting tasks done faster and in a more reliable fashion. In the last couple of decades this journey has bumped up a notch with the introduction of the object oriented programming, component based software, service oriented architectures (SOA), business process management (BPM) technologies, the internet and its technologies (Web 2.0), and so on. The last step on this long list of technologies, paradigms, and concepts is Cloud Computing. Leveraging on technologies such as virtualization, SOA, Web 2.0, grid computing, etc., Cloud Computing promises greater rates of industrialization of the IT. Making things happen faster, more reliably, and easier to manage is still the main goal of IT today.

Economy of Scale

With the build-up of the industrialization of IT, one inevitable outcome is the appearance of a new economy of scale that will allow IT providers to deliver services cheaper, making IT more like a commodity and less as a burden. Businesses can look at IT more and more as operational costs (OPEX), rather than capital expenditure (CAPEX) which makes a lot more sense for most.

Definition of Cloud Computing

What is Cloud computing after all? There are innumerous definitions of Cloud Computing and also huge disagreements about what it really is and means. So, I´ll try to give you an idea of what it is, hopefully without contributing further to the confusion. In my opinion, one of the reasons why there is a lot of confusionis because there is great mix-up of the concepts, namely technical ande purely conceptual.

                Conceptual Definition

According to NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Cloud Computing is:

Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.”

This is a good conceptual definition of Cloud Computing that touches its main characteristics, i.e., on-demand self-service, broadband network access, rapid elasticity, resource pooled, measured services.

Today, it is more or less accepted that there are three Cloud Computing models depending on the type of service provided, IaaS, Infrastructure as a Service, PaaS, Platform as a Service, and SaaS, Software as a Service.

                                IaaS – Infrastructure as a Service

Infrastructure as a Service provides infrastructure capabilities like processing, storage, networking, security, and other resources which allow consumers to deploy their applications and data. This is the lowest level provided by the Cloud Computing paradigm. Some examples of IaaS are: Amazon S3/EC2, Microsoft Windows Azure, and VMWare vCloud.

                                PaaS – Platform as a Service

Platform as a Service provides application infrastructure such as programming languages, database management systems, web servers, applications servers, etc. that allow applications to run. The consumer does not manage the underlying platform including, networking, operating system, storage, etc. Some examples of PaaS are: Google App Engine, Microsoft Azure Services Platform, and ORACLE/AWS.

                                SaaS – Software as a Service

Software as a Service is the most sophisticated model hiding all the underlying details of networking, storage, operating system, database management systems, application servers, etc. from the consumer. It provides the consumers end-user software applications most commonly through a web browser (but could also be though a rich client). Some examples of SaaS are: Salesforce CRM, Oracle CRM On Demand, Microsoft Online Services, and Google Apps.

In reality, there are a number of other models emerging that for some analysts will have a classification of their own, not falling within the models just described. Some examples of these are:

                                AIaaS – Application Infrastructure as a Service

Some analysts consider this model to provide application middleware, including applications servers, ESB, and BPM (Business Process Management).

                                APaaS – Application Platform as a Service

Provides application servers with added multitenant elasticity as a service. The model PaaS (Platform as a Service) mentioned before includes AIaaS and APaaS.

                                DaaS – Desktop as a Service

Based on application streaming and virtualization technology, provides desktop standardization, pay-per-use, management, and security.

                                BPaaS – Business Process as a Service

Provides business processes such as billing, contract management, payroll, HR, advertising, etc. as a service.

                                CaaS – Communications as a Service

Management of hardware and software required for delivering voice over IP, instant messaging, video conferencing, for both fixed and mobile devices

                                NaaS – Network as a Service

It allows telecommunication operators to provide network communications, billing, and intelligent features as services to consumers.

                                XaaS – Everything as a Service

Broad term that embraces all the models discussed here.

Technical Definition

Trouble usually starts when one tries to add technical concepts to the definition of a paradigm that is, conceptually, above technology. This confusion usually starts with the introduction of virtualization, web 2.0, grid computing, and so on and so forth. This reminds me of innumerous discussions with  fellow colleagues, about SOA and Web Services; the former, the concept and the latter, a technology that best applies it. Undoubtedly, virtualization, grid computing, web 2.0, SOA, WOA, etc., are the technology trends that will, for now, fuel the Cloud Computing initiative, but these are ephemerons, and the same concept remains regardless of technology changes.

                Cloud Types

In terms of implementation, there are three major types of cloud deployments; internal clouds, private clouds, and public clouds.

Cloud Types

                               Private Clouds

Private clouds (aka, on-premises cloud) are cloud deployments inside the organization’s premises, managed internally without the benefits of the economy of scale but with advantages in terms of security. This is becoming a new form of architecture for the Datacenter, sometimes mentioned as a Datacenter-in-a-box. VMWare is pioneering this approach, delivering products that will help to implement this type of cloud through their products vCloud, vCenter, and vSphere. VMWare is also leading an effort to achieve standardization for the cloud through the DMFT (Distributed Management Task Force) organization.

                               Public Clouds

Public Clouds are the original concept of cloud computing based on the ubiquity of the internet. This type of cloud provides all the benefits of the economy of scale, ease of management, and ever growing elasticity. The major concern about this style of deployment is security, and that is the only reason why the other types of cloud deployment have a say.

                                Hybrid Clouds

Hybrid Clouds are a deployment type that sits between the private and the public clouds. Hybrid Clouds are usually a combination of private clouds and public clouds, usually, managed using the same administration and monitoring consoles (therefore, the importance of cloud standardization). 


Much more than the technology that supports it, Cloud Computing is the last plateau of evolution of the IT industrialization process. Looking back at the recent years of the IT industry, it was predictable that something like Cloud Computing would come to revolutionize the IT industry. It seems that for a while, the “tecky” people took over the IT business, always eager to try new technologies, often with little value for the business they were trying to support. Now business is back to claim  added value from the IT departments, and Cloud Computing may very well be the answer.

All Roads Lead to Rome – Towards the Clouds

Cloud Computing is growing, and every solution provider wants to be part of the hype. This new trend promises to abstract IT professionals from the underlying nuts and bolts of server virtualization, storage allocation, scalability, availability, and operational overhead. It also aims to deliver on-demand, self-servicing capacity to reliably run applications through a simple administration console that allows you to monitor service levels and react accordingly. In a nut shell, this is the main idea of Cloud Computing.

Every company has realized the potential of this new idea, and they are all rushing to provide the most comprehensive solution. Cloud solutions come in many forms. Some providers even cover all the different flavors, being IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service), and SaaS (Software as a Service) the most common. So, what we see is, companies traditionally from the application infra-structure arena starting to incorporate virtualization solutions into their platforms and deliver Cloud Platforms in one or all of its forms. We also see companies, traditionally from the virtualization solution market, providing better management solutions, and partnering with application solution providers to deliver their Cloud Platforms, in one or all of its forms.

Another question that may arise is, if you are out in the market to purchase one of these solutions, which one best serves your interests!? Hard to tell, but I would say that it all depends on your particular requirements. Companies like VMWare and Citrix have strong virtualization products. VMWare, in particular, has partnered with a few other companies to provide virtual appliances with operating systems, database management systems, application servers, CRM, ERP, collaboration and communications solutions, etc. On the other side of the spectrum, companies like ORACLE, Microsoft, and IBM, also provide excellent solutions based on their application infrastructure and own virtualization solution. ORACLE, Microsoft, and IBM are extremely good in application infrastructure and are gaining expertise in the virtualization field. ORACLE has its virtualization solution based on the Xen open source solution, and is in the process of acquiring Virtual Iron and SUN Microsystems both of which have virtualization solutions based on Xen. Microsoft has its own Hyper-V solution. All of them also support VMWare virtualization solutions.

Bottom line, every new reference enterprise solution in the market is aiming at the “clouds”, providing a new form of DataCenter architecture based on simplicity and ease of use. Computer systems often evolve towards the use of standards achieving complex architectures based on building blocks made of well-known and reliable technologies. We have seen it in the past from objects, to components, to services, to composite applications, from virtualization, to RTI, to Cloud Computing, and will continue to see more and more levels of abstraction.

Virtualization and Cloud Computing

The most recent solutions from Microsoft and VMWare incorporate Cloud principles into their virtualization solutions. This is a predictable move since one of the major features of Cloud solutions is their elasticity which is accomplished heavily through virtualization. Cloud Computing solutions provide sophisticated administration tools, as well as, service level monitoring tools. Consequently,for visionary companies like Microsoft and VMWare ,extending these tools to their virtualization offerings is expectable. Additionally, VMWare extended its product to allow On-Premises installation, allowing customers to mitigate most of their security issues raised by an Off-Premises Cloud solution. Microsoft´s position on this isn´t yet clear.

The following diagram shows the architecture of Microsoft and VMWare solutions:


Microsoft´s solution,  taking the company’s background in consideration, targets the developer community, providing an integrated PaaS solution, including application services, database services, access control services, etc.

VMWare, on the other hand, relies on established partnerships to provide production ready application services through its Virtual Appliance Program.

The following diagram shows the use of VMWare´s solution on a Cloud environment:

 VMWare Cloud Architecture

The following diagram shows the use of Microsoft´s solution on a Cloud environment. Notice that Microsoft has not yet decided to provide an On-Premises Cloud solution, hence the grey cloud:

 Microsoft Cloud Architecture

VMWare has a credible solution to implement DataCenter setups On-Premises. The downside of VMWare´s solution, is that it only provides an IaaS solution which is expectable from a company that dedicates itself to virtualization solutions. Nevertheless, VMWare has established several partnerships with various application software providers to deliver Virtual Appliances that provide application engines (e.g., WebSphere), database engines (e.g., ORACLE), etc. Microsoft´s Cloud solution is more complete, in the sense that, it provides a fully loaded PaaS solution.

 Since I have dedicated some entries on this blog to Microsoft´s Cloud Solution, I will now concentrate on VMWare´s solution. The evolution of VMWare´s offerings has gone from a pure virtualization solution to a virtual DataCenter solution, with sophisticated administration tools, to a Cloud IaaS oriented operating system.

 VDC-OS and Cloud-OS

With its vCloud solution, VMWare delivers a Cloud operating system for Cloud providers. Many of these companies have already implemented VMWare´s vCloud solution, and this is expected to continue. VMWare is also targeting On-Premises installations, and taking advantage of the fact that Microsoft hasn´t taken a stand on this kind of installation.

Virtualization Suites

After my incursion in the virtualization intrinsics, I decided to look at three of the most popular hypervisor solutions on the market, Microsoft´s Hyper-V, VMWare´s ESX, and Citrix’s XenServer.  These are some of the findings:

Supported host operating systems:

Microsoft Hyper-V VMWare ESX/ESXi Citrix XenServer
Windows 2008 (64-bit machines with AMD-V or Intel-VT enabled processors) Linux (ESX) / Posix (ESXi) (64-bit x86 machines with or without  AMD-V or Intel-VT enabled processors) Linux (64-bit x86 machines. Requires AMD-V or Intel-VT enabled processors for Windows guests support)

As far as guest operating systems are concerned:

Microsoft Hyper-V VMWare ESX/ESXi Citrix XenServer
Windows Server 2000 Windows Server 2000 Windows Server 2000
Windows Server 2003 (x86, x64) Windows Server 2003 (x86, x64) Windows Server 2003 (x86, x64)
Windows Server 2008 (x86, x64) Windows Server 2008 (x86, x64) Windows Server 2008 (x86, x64)
Linux Linux Linux
Windows XP (x86, x64) Windows XP (x86, x64) Windows XP (x86, x64)
Windows Vista (x86, x64) Windows Vista (x86, x64) Windows Vista (x86, x64)
Windows 7 (x86, x64) Windows 7 (x86, x64)  

So, how do all of these technologies fit in the solution market? Basically, solution wise there are two main different areas of virtualization, server virtualization, and desktop virtualization.  Both of these provide increasingly more sophisticated administration tools that allow for effortless virtual machine allocation and service level monitoring.

The following table presents the suite of products provided by these three major players:

  Citrix Microsoft VMWare
Virtual desktop Citrix XenDesktop  Microsoft Virtual PC VMWare Workstation
Desktop Streaming Citrix XenDesktop Microsoft RDS (Remote Desktop Services, formerly, Terminal Services) VMWare View (VMWare VDI)
Desktop Distribution Citrix XenDesktop Microsoft MED-V (Microsoft Enterprise Desktop, based on Virtual PC) VMWare View (VMWare VDI)
Application delivery Citrix XenApp Microsoft App-V VMWare ThinApp
Hypervisor Citrix XenServer Microsoft Hyper-V VMWare ESX/ESXi
Cloud OS Citrix Cloud Center C3(Citrix XenServer, Citrix XenApp, Citrix XenDesktop) Windows Azure VMWare vSphere (vCloud)

Virtualization, as we know it, is ending. The technologies behind it are growing strong and will continue to do so, but Cloud Computing is forcing virtualization to be seen as IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service). Nobody really cares about dealing with virtualization´s nuts and bolts; companies demand ease of use. Increasingly more sophisticated solutions are emerging for both external and internal Clouds that will push us to redesign our DataCenters, and see it as a self-service infrastructure. More on this very shortly.

Virtualization Basics

Virtualization is not a new concept, but its complexity has been growing, and a number of new paradigms are rising. I will try to demystify some of the concepts behind virtualization, briefly explain some of its basics, and finally look at some of the products and solutions out there.

To begin, let me introduce three very simple concepts regarding virtualization: the host operating system, the hypervisor, and the guest operating system.

Virtualization Components

The host operating system provides a host to one or more virtual machines (or partitions) and shares physical resources with them. It’s where the virtualization product or the partitioning product is installed.

The guest operating system is the operating system installed inside a virtual machine (or a partition). In a virtualization solution the guest OS can be completely different from the host OS. In a partitioning solution the guest OS must be identical to the host OS.

A hypervisor, also called a virtual machine manager (VMM), is a program that allows multiple operating systems to share a single hardware host. Each operating system appears to have the host’s processor, memory, and other resources all to itself. The task of this hypervisor is to handle resource and memory allocation for the virtual machines, ensuring they cannot disrupt each other, in addition to providing interfaces for higher level administration and monitoring tools.

The Hypervisor

There are two types of hypervisors as depicted below:


Note: Xen is an open-source virtualization software used by several companies to implement their virtualization solution; companies like, ORACLE, Citrix, Sun, and Virtual Iron, to name a few.

Type 1 hypervisors, also known as bare-metal, are software systems that run directly on the host’s hardware as a hardware control and guest operating system monitor. Bare-metal virtualization is the current enterprise data center leader. VMware ESX is easily the market leader in enterprise virtualization at the moment, and it utilizes bare-metal virtualization architecture. What is immediately apparent about this architecture, is the lack of an existing OS; the hypervisor sits directly on top of the hardware, hence the term “bare-metal virtualization”. The reason so many data centers implement bare-metal products, such as ESX, Xen, and Hyper-V, is because of the speed it provides due to the decreased overhead from the OS that hosted virtualization uses.


Type 2 hypervisors, also known as hosted, are software applications running within a conventional operating system environment. This type of hypervisor is typically used in client side virtualization solutions such as Microsoft´s Virtual PC, and VMWare´s Workstation.


The Protection Rings

Another important concept is the protection rings. x86 CPUs provide a range of protection levels, also known as rings, in which code can execute. Ring 0 has the highest level privilege and is where the operating system kernel normally runs. Code executing in Ring 0 is said to be running in system space, kernel mode or supervisor mode. All other code, such as applications running on the operating system, operate in less privileged rings, typically Ring 3.


The hypervisor runs directly on the hardware of the host system in ring 0. Clearly, with the hypervisor occupying ring 0 of the CPU, the kernels for any guest operating systems running on the system must run in less privileged CPU rings. Unfortunately, most operating system kernels are written explicitly to run in ring 0, for the simple reason that they need to perform tasks that are only available in that ring, such as the ability to execute privileged CPU instructions and directly manipulate memory.

The AMD-V and Intel-VT CPUs use a new privilege level called Ring -1 for the VMM to reside, allowing for better performance as the VMM no longer needs to fool the Guest OS that it is running in Ring 0. Solutions like VMWare ESX, Xen (Citrix, ORACLE, IBM, etc.), and Microsoft Hyper-V take advantage of the hardware virtualization capabilities inherent to the new Intel and AMD CPUs.

Virtualization Landscape

After this brief introduction, let´s now take a look at the global virtualization landscape available out there. The following diagram shows how virtualization architectures are organized, as well as some of the solutions that implement them.


The following sections will briefly introduce some of the most important types of virtualization.


This is not a virtualization scenario; it´s here solely for comparison purposes. Here we see that the OS sits directly above the hardware executing in the ring 0.



Under paravirtualization, the kernel of the guest operating system is modified specifically to run on the hypervisor. This typically involves replacing any privileged operations that will only run in ring 0 of the CPU with calls to the hypervisor (known as hypercalls). The hypervisor in turn performs the task on behalf of the guest kernel.

This typically limits support to open source operating systems, such as Linux, which may be freely altered, and proprietary operating systems where the owners have agreed to make the necessary code modifications to target a specific hypervisor. This results in the ability of the guest kernel to communicate directly with the hypervisor, resulting in greater performance levels than other virtualization approaches.


Full Virtualization without Hardware Assist

Full virtualization provides support for unmodified guest operating systems. The term unmodified refers to operating system kernels which have not been altered to run on a hypervisor and, therefore, still execute privileged operations as though running in ring 0 of the CPU.

In this scenario, the hypervisor provides CPU emulation to handle and modify privileged and protected CPU operations made by unmodified guest operating system kernels. Unfortunately, this emulation process requires both time and system resources to operate, resulting in inferior performance levels when compared to those provided by paravirtualization.


Full Virtualization with Hardware Assist

Hardware virtualization leverages virtualization features built into the latest generations of CPUs from both Intel and AMD. These technologies, known as Intel VT and AMD-V, respectively, provide extensions necessary to run unmodified guest virtual machines without the overheads inherent in full virtualization CPU emulation.

In very simplistic terms, these new processors provide an additional privilege mode below ring 0 in which the hypervisor can operate essentially, leaving ring 0 available for unmodified guest operating systems.


OS virtualization

Compared with hypervisor based virtualization, container based virtualization offers a completely different approach to virtualization. Instead of virtualizing with a system in which there is a complete operating system installation, container based virtualization isolates containers work from within a single OS. In cases where only one operating system is needed, the main benefits of container based virtualization are that it doesn’t duplicate functionality and improves performance.

OS virtualization has been making waves lately because Microsoft is rumored to be in the market for an OS virtualization technology. The most well-known products that use OS virtualization are Parallels Virtuozzo and Solaris Containers. This virtualization architecture has many benefits, speedy performance being the foremost. Another benefit is reduced disk space requirements. Many containers can use the same files, resulting in lowered disk space requirements.

The big caveat with OS virtualization is the OS requirement. Container OSs must be the same OS as the host OS. This means that if you are utilizing Solaris containers then all containers must run Solaris. If you are implementing Virtuozzo containers on Windows 2003 Standard Edition, then all its containers must also be running Windows 2003 Standard Edition.


Hosted virtualization

This is the type of virtualization with which most users are familiar with. All of the desktop virtualization products, such as VMware Workstation, VMware Fusion, and Parallels Desktop for the Mac, and Microsoft Virtual PC implement hosted virtualization architecture. There are many benefits to this type of virtualization. Users can install a virtualization product onto their desktop just as any other application, and continue to use their desktop OS. Hosted virtualization products also take advantage of the host OS’s device drivers, resulting in the virtualization product supporting whatever hardware the host does.



As concepts evolve, it is often difficult to get a clear definition of the basics behind them, and virtualization is no exception to this rule. When I first started looking into virtualization a little more deeply (driven by my Cloud Computing crusade) I found it difficult to find clear information of all its fronts. I hope this blog entry helps the rest of you with the same problem. Furthermore, with the rise of Cloud Computing, new paradigms are emerging, forcing the virtualization solutions to adapt to a new reality; a subject that I will address shortly.